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Long COVID

The World Health Organization (W.H.O.) states Long COVID "can affect anyone exposed to SARS-CoV-2, regardless of age or severity of original symptoms." The definition of Long COVID is the "continuation or development of new symptoms 3 months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, with these symptoms lasting for at least 2 months with no other explanation." Common symptoms of Long COVID can include fatigue, shortness of breath, and cognitive dysfunction, but more than 200 different symptoms have been reported that can have an impact on everyday functioning. "Studies show that around 10–20% of people infected by SARS-CoV-2 may go on to develop symptoms that can be diagnosed as Long COVID. Although exact numbers of those living with the condition are uncertain, it is believed that more than 17 million people across the WHO European Region may have experienced it during the first two years of the pandemic (2020/21)." There are estimates of 23 million COVID Long Haulers alone in the United States (and probably more). It's very difficult to get accurate statistics due to a lack of good diagnostics for Long COVID and failure to identify initial COVID infection in many people. It is a tremendous, wide reaching problem, that's only growing with every variant. 

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Research

On PubMed there are 3,943 articles containing ""Long COVID", 8,313 containing "Post COVID", and 817 containing "PASC" (post-acute sequelae SARS-CoV-2 infection).

Some useful links to places where you can find research are below:

 

www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

https://www.zotero.org/groups/5006109/covidstudies

General Long COVID Research

* Data Shows Long COVID is keeping as many as 4 million out of work & annual cost of lost wages $170-$230 Billion

https://www.brookings.edu/articles/new-data-shows-long-covid-is-keeping-as-many-as-4-million-people-out-of-work/

* Household Pulse Survey

https://www.kff.org/policy-watch/long-covid-what-do-latest-data-show/

COVID, RNA, or Spike Persistence

* Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is characterized by diminished peripheral CD8+β7 integrin+ T cells and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA response

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36997530/

* Lingering SARS-CoV-2 in Gastric and Gallbladder Tissues of Patients with Previous COVID-19 Infection Undergoing Bariatric Surgery

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11695-022-06338-9

* SARS-CoV-2 infects human brain organoids causing cell death and loss of synapses that can be rescued by treatment with Sofosbuvir

https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.3001845

* SARS-CoV-2 infection and persistence in the human body and brain at autopsy

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-05542-y

* Viral persistence, reactivation, and mechanisms of long COVID

https://elifesciences.org/articles/86015

* SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells associate with inflammation and reduced lung function in pulmonary post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9176759/

* The role of immune activation and antigen persistence in acute and long COVID

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9996119/

* Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA suggest prolonged gastrointestinal infection

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9005383/

* Postacute COVID-19 is Characterized by Gut Viral Antigen Persistence in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9057012/

* Case report: Persistence of residual antigen and RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in tissues of two patients with long COVID

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9483160/

* Persistent Circulating Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Is Associated With Post-acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 Sequelae

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36052466/

* SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Accumulation in the Skull-Meninges-Brain Axis: Potential Implications for Long-Term Neurological Complications in post-COVID-19

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.04.04.535604v1

* Persistence of SARS CoV-2 S1 Protein in CD16+ Monocytes in Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) up to 15 Months Post-Infection

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8784688/

* Scientists launch manhunt for COVID patient infected for two years

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/scientists-launching-manhunt-covid-patient-infected-two-years

* Chronic biopsy proven post-COVID myoendocarditis with SARS-Cov-2 persistence and high level of antiheart antibodies

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clc.23886

* Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection, EBV, HHV-6 and Other Factors May Contribute to Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Long COVID

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/15/2/400

 

* Asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 infection in children's tonsils

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1808869422001392?via%3Dihub

* MORE LINKS (with a lot more research showing persistence)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1z4gS_KYOxfE-ySVjRJ-hYa6i44eP49xP/view

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10159620/#bib27

More Research

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